Where Are Liquid Calories Hiding, and How Do These Empty Calories Prevent You from losing weight?

Where Are Liquid Calories Hiding, and How Do These Empty Calories Prevent You from losing weight?

People often don’t even realise what their favourite drink contains, let alone remember what they drink in a day. And then they blame a slow metabolism or poor genetics for the necessity of loosening of their belt or the inability to lose weight. But it’s not that complicated, you just need to look honestly and clearly at your overall lifestyle, find shortcomings and slowly work to improve on them. Gradual small steps mean a big leap for man and humanity over time. Let’s take a look at what those liquid calories are, why they are often referred to as empty calories and how they affect weight loss, weight gain and overall health.

What are liquid calories? Sugar, alcohol and fat is at fault

Liquid calories represent energy hidden in drinks, which we often unknowingly receive in the form of a drinking ‘schedule’. Behind this we can imagine the entire beverage department in supermarkets, where an inexhaustible number of differently coloured drinks, which have a common denominator – sugar, try to attract our attention. Somewhere further in the corner, unsweetened drinks and mineral water can be found, and more conscious consumers often reach for those.

When walking around a supermarket we can also notice a large variety of juices, energy drinks, coffee and tea drinks or a bunch of milk-based drinks. If we ignore unsweetened drinks and the ones with artificial sweeteners or calorie-free polyalcohols mentioned on the packaging, we are left with the rest. And what does the rest have in common? Sugar.

And the last representative of liquid calories is alcohol, which can get us nicely drunk if we consume too much of it. Unfortunately, getting drunk will only get us a headache and stomach ache the next day. Even though most people are aware of the sugar content in the most popular sodas, shopping baskets are still full of them.

What are liquid calories?

How do liquid calories sabotage weight loss and lead to weight gain?

To illustrate, meet Eve. Eve tries to eat healthy and wants to lose weight, she even has a diet plan set to lose weight, but she’s getting frustrated because she’s not succeeding and wondering where she could be making a mistake?

Eve starts her day with a comprehensive breakfast in the form of oatmeal with protein, and she also has coffee with cream and a little bit of sweet coconut syrup. Eve drinks a 0.3l glass of orange juice with her morning snack because she heard that it is healthy and that the juice contains vitamin C. Eve only had a glass of water with her lunch, but because she only had a light salad with a minimum of protein, she also had a healthy smoothie, which she hopes will fill her with as few calories as possible. On the way home from work, she buys Light Iced Coffee in a store, because she is used to it and most of all she likes it. In the evening, she and her boyfriend have a glass of wine as a reward for fulfilling her daily training plan.

So where is Eve making a mistake and why isn’t she losing weight?

Eve has a training plan and a diet plan set for a daily caloric deficit of 500 kcal. But Eve did not count 100 ml of 12% cream (136 kcal) and 10 ml of coconut syrup (32 kcal) which she has in her morning coffee. She also did not realise that 0.3 l of orange juice (135 kcal) also has some energy value. She also added 1 banana, half an apple and half a pear, 10 grams of chia seeds, 30 grams of spinach and 100 ml of semi-skimmed milk (roughly 250 kcal) to her healthy smoothie, which she thought would have a minimum of calories. A package of Light Iced Coffee (175 kcal), which she enjoyed on the way home from work, and a glass of semi-dry wine (180 kcal) in the evening to celebrate her success with following her diet plan, which added an extra 900 kcal to her energy intake.

Although Eve has a caloric deficit set at 500 kcal, she is in a caloric excess of 400 kcal due to unnecessary energy intake from beverages. Not only will she not lose weight, but she will probably gain weight. Eve’s case may seem slightly exaggerated, but when you analyse what the average person can drink during the day, it may not be that far from the truth in terms of the energy intake.

Do people drink more alcohol due to ever-changing measures?

There are reports from almost all over the world that people drink more alcohol at home during government restrictions. For example, in the United States, according to the study 1 in 3 Americans drink during working hours while working from home. We are going through a stressful time now. Many people are struggling to work from home, they are facing a lot of distractions and alcohol may seem like a good way to deal with the situation, says Dr. Lawrence Weinstein, chief physician of the American Addiction Centers. Drinking alcohol is directly linked to the anxiety and fear of the current COVID-19 pandemic,” Weinstein said, trying to explain why Americans reach for a drink more often during this time. In Poland, research has found a disturbing increase in alcohol consumption among quarantined doctors. More than 50% of physicians surveyed found that their alcohol consumption had increased significantly during this time, and about 40% of physicians admitted to consuming alcohol more than four times a week. [1–2]

A similar increase in alcohol consumption at home can be observed, for example, in Australia and the United Kingdom. This may be due to the fact that alcohol is unfortunately a fairly common response to coping with stress and social isolation. The same trend can be observed in almost all countries, according to media reports. But the question is whether the total alcohol consumption has increased or just moved to households. Either way, we all somehow know that alcohol will not solve stress, anxiety or life worries. On the contrary, we will sink deeper and deeper over time. A much better strategy is to spend time in nature, practise sports, meditate, visit sauna, have a cold bath or stay in touch with your close ones, at least by phone. [3–7] 

If you want to learn why these strategies are more successful than fighting stress with alcohol, read our article Why is stress dangerous for us and how to reduce it?

Do people drink more alcohol at home?

How many calories and sugar do these popular drinks contain and why are smoothies not that healthy?

We have already said that the most common source of energy in beverages is mainly sugar and in alcoholic beverages it is alcohol. We should also take into account the fat that may appear in some drinks because of milk, cream or chocolate. Below we will show you how much energy and sugar some drinks contain and how long the average 65-kilogram woman and the 80-kilogram man have to run at a speed of 10 kph (6.21 mph) to burn the energy they contain. [8]

1. Sweet carbonated drinks and mineral water

Do you like Coca Cola? It is a great example of a sweetened drink as well as a whole bunch of others, such as Mountain Dew, Fanta, Pepsi and countless other popular sodas. Even companies that were supplying the market with pure mineral water now try to tip the customer to their side by creating sweetened mineral water in an inexhaustible amount of flavours.

And let’s not lie to each other, because of the fairly high energy content in sugary drinks, sweet sodas are often associated with weight increase and obesity and are often cited as the direct culprits of the growing body circumference of people around the world. [9 –12] 

Liquid calories from sweetened sodas (as well as from other drinks) jump damn fast and quite logically do not have the same effect on satiety compared to solid food with the same energy content. Because of this, people often don’t know when to stop, and it is easier to receive a large amount of energy beyond their needs. [13 –14]

How much energy and sugar does a litre of popular sweet sodas contain?





Coca Cola450 kcal112 g22,5
Mountain Dew480 kcal120 g24
Orange Fanta280 kcal69 g13,8
Pepsi Cola440 kcal110 g22

The stated values ​​come from beverages available on the European market. It is possible that the manufacturer uses a different recipe for different regions, and as the result, the energy content may vary slightly across countries.

How many litres of soda would you have to drink to theoretically gain a kilogram of fat?


Energy equivalent of 1 kg of fat per litre of drink

Coca Cola17,1 l
Mountain Dew16 l
Orange Fanta27,5 l
Pepsi Cola17,5 l

At first glance, this may seem like a fairly large amount, but if someone drinks a litre of such a portion of energy every day, it is not so unrealistic. Isn’t it better to drink ordinary water then?

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn one litre of soda?


65-kilogram (143 lbs) woman

80-kilogram (176 lbs) man

Coca Cola41,5 minutesalmost 34 minutes
Mountain Dew44,5 minutes36 minutes
Orange Fantaalmost 26 minutes21 minutes
Pepsi Colaalmost 41 minutes33 minutes

How to make it right? Ideally, of course, drink clean tap water. You can also try replacing those drinks with their diet version, which contains artificial sweeteners. But we shouldn’t really drink too many of those either. You can also try to make a “carbonated drink” at home using a device for home production of carbonated drinks, add some of your favourite herbs, juice from lemon, orange or any other fruit you like, and you can sweeten the drink with calorie-free erythritol or stevia. You can also use xylitol for even less-caloric version. A popular option are also drinks prepared with the help of BCAA amino acids, which add a nice taste to your drink and make it more special. And if you don’t want to spend too much time with the preparation, you can also reach for mineral waters with a natural aroma, as those don’t contain any sweeteners. That makes them a nice choice to diversify your drinking routine.

If you are interested in which alternative to sugar is the best, read our article Sugar substitutes – which sweetener is right for you?

How many calories and sugar do these popular drinks contain and why are smoothies not that healthy?

2. Sweetened teas and coffees

In stores, it is now possible to buy a wide range of coffee or tea drinks, which, in addition to actual coffee, contain quite a decent amount of sugar, and if it contains also cream or some form of milk, there will be also some fat present. For example, 500ml of very popular chilled Emmi Caffé Latte contains approximately 255 kcal, almost 37 grams of sugar, 5.5 grams of fat and 13 grams of protein. Do you remember the example of Eve? She was lucky enough to reach for the skinny version of Emmi Caffé Latte. Similar examples are present with number of iced teas, which also contain a considerable amount of sugar.

And how much energy and how many sugar cubes does the 0.5l package of Emmi Caffé Latte contain? 295.7 calories and 43.9 grams of sugar, which is almost 9 sugar cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn a 0.5 litre of iced coffee?

  • Woman: almost 30 minutes
  • Man: almost 20 minutes

How to make it right? If you like coffee or tea, make your favourite iced coffee yourself at home by mixing espresso or instant coffee with milk and a dose of your favourite flavoured protein. Then all you have to do is leave it in the fridge overnight and a protein-packed snack is born. Again, you can use erythritol, xylitol or stevia to sweeten it. And if you decide to go for store-bought version anyway, reach for the one with artificial sweeteners or polyalcohols in an effort to reduce the energy consumption of the drink. The same goes when choosing an ice tea.

If you are interested in how safe or unsafe artificial sweeteners are, read our article Artificial sweeteners – myths and facts about their safety and effects.

3. Juices, syrups and ciders

The juices are said to be healthy and contain a decent amount of vitamin C. But juices are also a source of a considerable amount of sugar, which eliminates its health benefits to a certain level. Did you know that to cover the recommended daily dose of vitamin C, you only need to eat about 100-150 grams of peppers? Orange juice contains on average about 20-60 mg of vitamin C in 100 ml. And the situation is similar in the case of various fresh juices, which can be purchased in almost any shopping centre, and also ciders, which are quite popular especially in autumn.

How much energy and sugar cubes does a litre of 100% orange juice contain? A litre of average orange juice contains about 450 calories, 100 grams of sugar, which is 20 sugar cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn a litre of an average 100% orange juice?

  • Woman: almost 41 minutes
  • Man: almost 33 minutes

How to make the situation better? When you reach for juice, freshly squeezed juice or cider, dilute it with unsweetened mineral or tap water at least in a ratio of 1:1 and ideally even in a larger ratio in favour of the unsweetened liquid. You will consume less calories and sugar. And isn’t the best solution in general to eat your fruit instead of drinking it? Try squeezing the juice from one half of the orange into a glass with water and eating the other half, you will see that this way is much more satisfying. And the ideal solution? Eat the whole orange and flush it down with water. That way you get the necessary amount of fiber, which promotes the feeling of satiety from food and can slow down the rise of blood sugar levels after consuming high-carb foods.

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4. Smoothies

Smoothies are considered to be super healthy, but we can also hear opposing opinions that say it’s just empty energy in the form of sugar. Where’s the truth? Smoothies are made by mixing several different types of fruit, or vegetables, nuts and seeds, milk or yogurt. It is true that a smoothie can be literally loaded with vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, but also with a lot of calories and sugar.

Imagine that we place a banana, half an apple, half a pear, a tablespoon of chia seeds, a handful of spinach and about a third of a cup of semi-skimmed milk on the table next to a glass of smoothie which contains exactly the same amount of food, just mixed together. What is going to fill you up more, if you eat or drink all of it? I bet you’ll be much more full after eating it as food. Why is that so? Among other things, fruit naturally contains fiber, which is disrupted by mixing and does not fulfil its function in the body, which is to promote satiety and release sugar from the fruit gradually. Because of this, you may be hungry quite soon after drinking a smoothie. [13 –14]

How much energy and sugar cubes does a smoothie prepared from the above mentioned ingredients contain? 265 calories and about 36.5 grams of sugar, which is about 7 sugar cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn such a smoothie?

  • Woman: almost 25 minutes
  • Man: almost 20 minutes

How to make it right? A smoothie can be great when you realise how much energy and sugar it can contain and that by mixing it you lose most of the benefits of fiber. Its benefits can also be appreciated by people who have trouble eating breakfast in the morning and need to receive enough energy to last until noon. Likewise, a smoothie is a suitable snack for busy people, as long as it contains enough of all nutrients, and is thus a complex liquid meal. Even after training, a smoothie is an interesting source of nutrients to regenerate the body. Therefore, don’t forget to enrich your smoothie with high-quality protein, whether in form of a yogurt, milk, or high-quality whey or vegetable protein. Always put as many pieces of fruit, vegetables, nuts and seeds in your smoothie, as you normally eat for a snack or during the whole day. Remember that it is recommended to eat about 2 larger pieces of fruit per day.

How much energy and sugar cubes does a smoothie contain?

5. Coffee and tea

Of course, coffee and tea are drinks which are beneficial for our health. They contain a number of biologically active substances and are therefore associated with a reduced risk of developing various types of cancer, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, protection of the brain against ageing and a lower probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases. [15 –16] 

In pure form without the addition of sugar, milk or cream and various sweet syrups, these drinks are almost calorie-free. But sometimes a cappuccino with syrup in the largest size from popular cafés such as Starbucks or Costa Coffee can have a few hundred of totally unnecessary calories.

How much energy and sugar cubes does a typical Grande-sized Starbucks Pumpkin Spice Latte contain? 380 calories, 50 grams of sugar, which is 10 sugar cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn a Grande-sized Pumpkin Spice Latte?

  • Woman: approximately 35 minutes
  • Man: approximately 29 minutes

How to make it right? If you prefer these sweet coffees, ask for as little syrup as possible, low-fat milk and give up whipped cream, which will take away most of the energy value of the drink. Ideally order an espresso or a cup of green tea from high-quality ingredients. Maybe you will grow fond of it and discover the true magic of the coffee or tea world. At home, replace cream with milk, whole milk with semi-skimmed or low-fat milk, and for sweetening you can use calorie-free Erythritol, which has a similar sweetness as sugar or Stevia.

6. Beer

Beer is a favourite drink of many people almost all year around. To have “a cold one” after a hearty dinner or after a busy summer day is not a big problem. But when the cold one turns into five cold ones, it can be more problematic. One average a 4% beer contains about 210 kcal and a 5% beer about 250 kcal. So five 5% beers can add up to about 1,250 kcal, which for many people is more than half of their optimal daily energy intake. Needless to say, alcohol awakens appetite especially for savoury and fat foods. In one evening you can then quite easily receive the amount of energy you should have received in a whole day. [17]

How much energy, alcohol and sugar cubes does an average 5% beer contain? About 250 calories, 25 grams of alcohol and almost 19 grams of sugar, which is almost 4 cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn an average of 0.5 litres of 5% beer?

  • Woman: approximately 23 minutes
  • Man: almost 19 minutes

How to make it right? Having a beer here and there can be perfectly fine, but remember that calories from beer can add up damn fast. If you want to lighten the caloric intensity a bit, have just one, choose beers with lower alcohol content or go for non-alcoholic beer. One unflavoured non-alcoholic beer contains about 100 kcal and 12 grams of sugar.

To learn more about the effects of alcohol on weight loss and athletic performance, read our article How does alcohol affect weight loss, regeneration and muscle growth?

How much energy does beer contain and how long would you have to run to burn one beer?

7. Cider

We said that calories from beer add up quickly. This is even more true with cider. While cider may seem like a better alternative to beer, it doesn’t necessarily have to be true. Cider on tap or one can is typically 0.4 litre and on average contains 240 kcal and about 28 grams of sugar. If we compare 0.5 l of 5% beer and the same amount of cider, cider “wins” in terms of energy.

How much energy, alcohol and sugar cubes does an average cider contain? About 240 calories, 18 grams of alcohol and 28 grams of sugar, which is almost 6 cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn an average 0.4 litre cider?

  • Woman: approximately 23 minutes
  • Man: almost 19 minutes

How to make it right? Probably just by being aware of the energy content in the cider or instead of cider reaching for apple cider diluted with sparkling water.

8. Wine

Wine is also a popular alcoholic beverage and having a “nice evening and a bottle of wine” is not a problem for two people and sometimes not even for an individual. An old Latin proverb says that “In wine, there is truth” (In vino veritas), but the answer to our questions is not hidden at the bottom of a glass or bottle. To have a glass from time to time may not be a problem, but same doesn’t apply for drinking a whole bottle. The basic types of wine include dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet and sweet. What are the differences? In particular the sugar content. Dry wine usually contains sugar up to 4 g/l, semi-dry up to 12 g/l, semi-sweet up to 45 g/l and sweet 45 g/l or more. [18]

The energy value and sugar content is also increased in popular mulled wines and punches, to which every retailer or household adds sugar and spices to their likings, meaning that a 0.2 l glass of mulled wine can contain more than 200 kcal.

How much energy and sugar does a bottle of average dry wine contain? On average, 510 kcal, 3 grams of sugar, which is less than one sugar cube.

How much energy and sugar does a bottle of average sweet wine contain? On average, 700 kcal, 60 grams of sugar, which is the equivalent of 12 sugar cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn a bottle of average dry and sweet wine?

Dry wine:

  • Woman: approximately 47 minutes
  • Man: almost 38 minutes

Sweet wine:

  • Woman: almost 65 minutes
  • Man: almost 53 minutes

How to make it right? When it comes to wine, reach for a dry one. If you don’t mind spritzer, maybe try mixing the wine with sparkling water in 1:1 ratio. In the case of home-made mulled wine, try using a minimum amount of sugar or replacing the sugar with, for example, Erythritol.

9. Mixed alcoholic drinks

In the case of mixed alcoholic beverages, the situation is somewhat more complicated, as each beverage contains a different amount of alcohol, sugar, vegetable milk or cream. Take, for example, a very simple drink like Cuba Libre, which consists of a double shot of white rum, about 120 ml of Coca Cola and 10 ml of lime juice.

How much energy and sugar does the average Cuba Libre contain? About 170 kcal, about 15 grams of sugar, which is 3 cubes of sugar.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn the average Cuba Libre?

  • Woman: almost 16 minutes
  • Man: almost 13 minutes

How to make it right? If possible, reach for diet version of soda, when preparing a mixed drink. Likewise, in the case of drinks containing cream or fat vegetable milk, choose, for example, semi-skimmed milk or a light version of vegetable milk. Replace the sugar in the recipe with erythritol, xylitol or stevia.

10. Sports drinks

Sports drinks are like fire. A good servant, but a bad master. Why? They contain a lot of energy that athletes need to supply the body during long-lasting training or competitions for the best possible performance. Typically, we can name various ionic drinks, which usually contain about 400 kcal per 100 g of powder, of which 90 grams is sugar.

How much energy and sugar does the average ionic drink contain? About 400 kcal, 90 grams of sugar, which is the equivalent of 18 sugar cubes.

How long would an average woman and man have to run to burn 100 g of powder used to prepare 3 doses of an average ionic drink?

  • Woman: almost 37 minutes
  • Man: around 30 minutes

How to make it right? Think about whether you need to drink ionic drinks at all. If you are a professional or amateur athlete with ambitions for the best possible position in various races, and you get under physical pressure, then it will be useful for you. But if you are trying to lose weight and drink ionic drinks during or after sports, then you will be better off without them, because you don’t really need them for this reason. It is better to focus on getting enough protein, which will help you to feel satisfied and full after a meal. Whey or vegetable protein is a suitable choice especially after your exercise, to achieve rapid regeneration or at any time during the day to meet the optimal daily protein intake. [19]

How much energy and sugar does the average ionic drink contain?

What is the lesson?

As you can see, liquid calories can often unnecessarily increase your energy intake, sabotaging your weight loss efforts without you even knowing about it. After reading the article, you should know where the empty energy in the form of liquid calories is hidden and how to avoid it. For you, it might be enough to drink clean tap or bottled water supplemented with high-quality unsweetened coffee and tea. If you use a lot of sugar and it bothers you, you can try the calorie-free sweetener – erythritol, which is also found in nature in various fruits.

And if you can’t imagine your life without Coca Cola? Try to gradually reduce its amount, gradually replace it with a diet version and try to eventually switch to a homemade drink made of carbonated mineral water, fruit juice, and possibly sweeten it with one of the sugar alternatives. And what if you can’t imagine life without energy drinks? Reach for the version with artificial sweeteners and do not exceed a daily dose of caffeine, which is 400 mg.

And how do you handle liquid calories? Share with us in the comment your advice and tips on how to beat liquid calories. If you liked the article, support it by sharing so that your friends can find out where are liquid calories hiding and how much sugar their favourite drinks contain.


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[2] American Addiction Centres – Drinking Alcohol When Working from Home. – https://www.alcohol.org/guides/work-from-home-drinking/

[3] Sugarman, D. E., & Greenfield, S. F. – Alcohol and COVID-19: How Do We Respond to This Growing Public Health Crisis? – https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06321-z

[4] Pollard, M. S., Tucker, J. S., & Green, H. D. – Changes in Adult Alcohol Use and Consequences During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. – https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22942

[5] Neill, E., Meyer, D., Toh, W. L., Rheenen, T. E. van, Phillipou, A., Tan, E. J., & Rossell, S. L. – Alcohol use in Australia during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic: Initial results from the COLLATE project. – https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13099

[6] Kim, J. U., Majid, A., Judge, R., Crook, P., Nathwani, R., Selvapatt, N., Lovendoski, J., Manousou, P., Thursz, M., Dhar, A., Lewis, H., Vergis, N., & Lemoine, M. – Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on alcohol consumption in patients with pre-existing alcohol use disorder. – https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30251-X

[7] Rodriguez, L. M., Litt, D. M., & Stewart, S. H. – Drinking to cope with the pandemic: The unique associations of COVID-19-related perceived threat and psychological distress to drinking behaviors in American men and women. – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106532

[8] Compendium of physical activities – https://sites.google.com/site/compendiumofphysicalactivities/Activity-Categories/winter-activtities

[9] Malik, V. S., Schulze, M. B., & Hu, F. B. – Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: A systematic review. – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210834/

[10] Bray, G. A., Nielsen, S. J., & Popkin, B. M. – Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. – https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.4.537

[11] Bucher Della Torre, S., Keller, A., Laure Depeyre, J., & Kruseman, M. – Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis on How Methodological Quality May Influence Conclusions. – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.05.020

[12] James, J., Thomas, P., Cavan, D., & Kerr, D. – Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: Cluster randomised controlled trial.

[13] DiMeglio, D. P., & Mattes, R. D. – Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: Effects on food intake and body weight. – https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801229

[14] Mattes, R. D., & Campbell, W. W. – Effects of food form and timing of ingestion on appetite and energy intake in lean young adults and in young adults with obesity.

[15] Poole, R., Kennedy, O. J., Roderick, P., Fallowfield, J. A., Hayes, P. C., & Parkes, J. – Coffee consumption and health: Umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. – https://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j5024

[16] Chacko, S. M., Thambi, P. T., Kuttan, R., & Nishigaki, I. – Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. – https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-5-13

[17] Yeomans, M. R., Caton, S., & Hetherington, M. M. – Alcohol and food intake. – https://doi.org/10.1097/00075197-200311000-00006

[18] WSB Guide to EU Wine Regulations. – GUIDE TO EU WINE REGULATIONS.

[19] Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Lemmens, S. G., & Westerterp, K. R. – Dietary protein its role in satiety, energetics, weight loss and health. – https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/dietary-protein-its-role-in-satiety-energetics-weight-loss-and-health/CCA49F7254E34FF25FD08A78A05DECD7

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