CBD alebo kanabidiol - všetko, čo o ňom musíte vedieť

CBD or cannabidiol – everything you need to know about it

CBD (cannabidiol) products are currently a very popular and widespread product because they are used to treat many health problems. CBD has been the subject of research for several decades, and despite its confirmed benefits, it remains banned in several countries around the world. Find out the advantages but also the negatives of using products containing cannabidiol.

What is hemp?

CBD or cannabidiol is popular for its effects on the body, but we should start with the plant itself.

Cannabis sativa (Cannabis sativa) is an ancient medicinal plant, known for several millennia. It contains active substances called cannabinoids, extracting more than 100 different cannabinoids. Researchers focus on two components – cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Psychoactive THC is undoubtedly better known, but CBD is not new to scientists and the general public. [1]

What is hemp?

There are 3 species of hemp in the Cannabaceae family [4]:

  1. Cannabis Sativa
  2. Cannabis Indica
  3. Cannabis Ruderalis

Although Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica belong to the same family, they are quite different in appearance and effects. The sown plant has light green leaves and is relatively tall, while the Indica plant resembles a broad shrub, and has dark green leaves. Another difference is the use, Cannabis Sativa has a stimulating effect, and the Indica has relaxing effects. [6]

Cannabis Ruderalis, the third type of hemp, is mostly unknown because, unlike the first two species, it does not have such strong effects. It is not used for recreational or medical purposes and is characterised by rapid growth, which would not be detrimental when crossing with other species. [5]

Hemp – a plant known for 10,000 years

Hemp has been part of human civilization for a long time, and even one of the oldest mentions is the use of hemp rope in pottery in present-day Taiwan. However, we were not talking about a period 2000 or 4000 years ago. It dates back to 10,000 years ago, which means that cannabis may be one of the first crops cultivated by humans. Carl Sagan (scientist and astronomer) even admits that cannabis could be the first agricultural crop ever. Maybe this is true if you, therefore, choose to imagine farmers from the year 8000 B.C., do not imagine a wheat field behind their dwelling, but a hemp field. [2]

Hemp and its history

Today’s Chinese were the first to use cannabis. As early as 6000 B.C., they included oil and cannabis seeds in the menu and later for textile purposes. The first mention of cannabis for medical purposes is from 2737 B.C., Chinese Emperor Shen Nung used cannabis to treat gout and rheumatism. Later, cannabis began to travel around the world. 100 years B.C., there is the first mention of hemp paper originating in China. By the year 100, cannabis was already in Britain, in the second century, cannabis was prescribed for medical purposes in Greece, and the Jewish book Talmud also mentioned the “euphoric” properties of this plant. The history of cannabis is extensive and associated with many nations, which have recognized the various possibilities of its use. [2] [3]

CBD and other cannabinoids

Cannabinoids are found in some cannabis components, and of the total number of more than 500 compounds, 104 cannabinoids belong to this group. As we have already mentioned, the most well-known components are THC and CBD. Cannabinoids are divided into the following subclasses [7] [8]:

  • Cannabigerol (CBG)
  • Cannabichromenes (CBC)
  • Cannabidiol (CBD)
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  • Cannabinol (CBN)
  • Cannabinodiol (CBDL)
  • Other cannabinoids including cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabielsoin (CBE) and cannabitriol (CBT).
CBD and other cannabinoids

CBD – cannabidiol

Humankind has known about the effects of cannabis for thousands of years, but the identification of specific cannabinoids did not occur until the 20th century. Cannabidiol (CBD) was first isolated in 1942, Roger Adams succeeded, and his work may have led to the discovery of another known cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It didn’t take long for a laboratory examination of CBD to begin, the first test on animals in 1946, and the tests performed by Dr Walter S. Loeve confirmed that CBD does not cause changes in mental state. Further research followed, and oil from CBD was marketed for medical purposes. Another major breakthrough was a study confirming that CBD may be important in the treatment of epilepsy. Since then, much research has been done, and others are still ongoing, but scientists are discovering the benefits and opportunities for the application of CBD and the treatment of many disorders. [9] [10]

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Health benefits of CBD

CBD and epilepsy

CBD can be useful for patients with epilepsy, and the researchers are testing an amount that can reduce the incidence of seizures in people with epilepsy. According to the American Society for Epilepsy, research is underway to understand the safety of CBD use. In this context, it is interesting to present the results of a study from 2016, during which respondents received CBD orally. According to the results, an overall reduction in seizures of 36.5% was noted, but serious side effects were found in 12%. [11] 

Authorized CBD-containing medicines include, for example, Epidiolex, which is also the first FDA-approved drug on this basis. Epidiolex is prescribed for patients with rare types of epilepsy – Dravet’s and Lennox-Gastrault’s syndrome. [12]

Treatment of depression and anxiety

Depression and anxiety are serious conditions, and these are currently being treated with various medications that can have side effects, such as drowsiness or headaches. CBD oil can be a natural solution to these difficulties, as evidenced by the results of a study conducted on 57 men. The results were verified on a simulated public speech made by the participants after using the CBD. Participants were administered 90 minutes before the CBD test, and the 300 mg CBD dose was most effective in reducing anxiety. [13]

Treatment of depression and anxiety

According to several studies, CBD affects the treatment of anxiety. However, it may be not only a generalised anxiety disorder but also social phobia or post-traumatic stress disorder. Thus, CBD can have positive effects on several forms of anxiety. Similar findings are presented in a 2019 study, according to which cannabidiol is promising in specific sectors of psychiatry, such as the treatment of anxiety, depression or autism and schizophrenia. [14] [15]

CBD and pain relief

The ability to alleviate pain due to cannabis is not new in recent days; its use for these purposes dates back to 2900 B.C. The Sativex spray also evidences the importance of CBD for the mentioned purpose, it is a drug intended for the treatment of pain associated with arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Sativex contains THC in addition to CBD and is approved in several countries, such as Canada and the United Kingdom, for the treatment of sclerosis. According to scientists, the positive effect of CBD in the treatment of pain may be due not so much to its effect against the pain as the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD. Be that as it may, CBD seems to be useful, which is most famous for people with these serious diseases. [11] [13]

CBD is being studied for its effects on several health diseases and conditions, including acne, diabetes prevention, Parkinson’s disease, or cancer-related symptoms. The list of treatable diseases can be expanded, and it is up to scientists to bring new and exceptionally safe drugs. [13]

CBD and pain relief

Possibilities of using CBD and its negatives

CBD is not legal everywhere

Cannabidiol and products containing it are not legal worldwide and are even regulated based on THC content. CBD is an extract of hemp, so it is subject to various regulations that define who can grow, produce and also buy CBD products. It is in our interest to provide relevant information without misleading, so before purchasing, carefully check that CBD products are legal in your country and that you do not unknowingly commit a crime. It may even be necessary to update this chapter after some time due to possible changes in legislation. The European Commission included cannabinoids among novel foods in January 2019. The term “novel foods” refers to foods that were not used for human consumption until 15 May 1997. CBD is considered a new product in the EU, new products are continually coming on the market, even though the EU’s restrictions are changing. Industrial hemp with a THC content of less than 0.2% is legal, but CBD laws are stricter. The mentioned value of 0.2% THC is also important for distinguishing the terms of marijuana and cannabis. Plants with higher content are labelled as marijuana, and conversely, a lower amount is cannabis. The conditions for buying a CBD in the EU are different in many countries, so it is advisable to check its legality in a particular country. [16] [17] [23]

CBD is not legal everywhere

In the United States, hemp products with a CBD content and a THC content of up to 0.3% are permitted at the federal level. However, in some states, they are prohibited by state law. Another case occurs with “marijuana-based” CBD-containing products. They are not permitted by federal law but are legal in certain states. The rule of verifying laws before crossing borders is important in the US, but also in certain European countries. The holiday season is approaching; if you are travelling, keep in mind the legal differences abroad. [22]

Side effects of CBD

Cannabidiol (CBD) is generally considered safe, but its use is associated with possible side effects. Besides, CBD can interact with other medications, so it is not detrimental to consult your doctor about taking CBD oil. This applies in particular to medicines that contain so-called “Grapefruit warning”. You may have heard of it, and it is a relatively well-known fact that this fruit affects the effect of certain drugs. This is due to components of grapefruit called furanocoumarins. These disrupt the function of a special type of P450 enzyme that is responsible for processing medicines. Reported side effects of CBD include, for example [13] [18] [19] [21]:

  • low blood pressure
  • drowsiness and fatigue
  • dry mouth
  • diarrhea
  • lower appetite

CBD oil is generally safe, with a daily dose of 300 mg orally used safely for 6 months. THC, on the other hand, causes several temporary side effects [18] [20]:

  • red eyes and dry mouth
  • slower reactions and memory loss
  • coordination problems and increased heart rate

Especially in adolescents, regular use of higher doses of THC has a long-term negative impact and may increase the risk of schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. [20]

Forms of CBD

Cannabidiol is now available in various forms, depending of course on the country and its legislation. If you live in a country where CBD is banned, you will have to “miss the taste”. The most common form is oil, which is applied with the help of a dropper. Cannabidiol-containing products may also be useful in treating skin, muscle or joint problems. You can, therefore, also find them in the form of skin creams and ointments. However, they also exist in tablet and capsule form. [22]

Forms of CBD

CBD is a natural substance that can alleviate difficulties of various kinds. It is the subject of several pieces of research and provides relief from physical as well as suffocated struggles. In addition to its beneficial effects, it also has side effects and, last but not least, it is still banned in several countries around the world. We believe that you have learned everything you need about cannabidiol. Do you want your friends to know about CBD and its effects on the body? Feel free to support the article by sharing it with them.


[1] Serena Silvestro, Santa Mammana, Eugenio Cavalli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon – Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514832/

[2] 10,000-year History of Marijuana use in the World – https://www.advancedholistichealth.org/history.html

[3] John White – The History of Marijuana – A look into cannabis history – from its early cultivation and uses to views of it in modern times – https://www.cnbs.org/cannabis-101/history-of-cannabis/

[4] Aaron Cadena – Hemp vs Marijuana: The Difference Explained (2020 Update) – https://medium.com/cbd-origin/hemp-vs-marijuana-the-difference-explained-a837c51aa8f7

[5] Alan Carter – Sativa vs. Indica: What to Expect Across Cannabis Types and Strains – https://www.healthline.com/health/sativa-vs-indica

[6] Danielle Dresden – What’s the difference between indica and sativa? – https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/indica-vs-sativa

[7] Genevieve Lafaye, Laurent Karila, Lisa Blecha, Amine Benyamina – Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741114/

[8] Ananya Mandal – What are Cannabinoids? – https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-are-Cannabinoids.aspx#:~:text=Cannabinoids%20are%20naturally%20occurring%20compounds,main%20psychoactive%20ingredient%20in%20cannabis.

[9] Aaron Cadena – The History of CBD: A Brief Overview – https://medium.com/cbd-origin/the-history-of-cbd-a-brief-overview-68545c05ccc9#:~:text=The%20first%20discovery%20of%20an,when%20British%20chemist%20Robert%20S.&text=Two%20years%20later%2C%20American%20chemist,discovery%20of%20Tetrahydrocannabinol%20(THC).

[10] Ted Stanton – CBD History: The Past, Present And Future Of Using CBD – UPDATED] [https://ministryofhemp.com/blog/cbd-history/

[11] Kristeen Cherney – 6 Benefits of CBD Oil – https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-oil-benefits

[12] Jessica Caporuscio – 7 benefits of CBD oil – https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/cbd-oil-benefits

[13] Jillian Kubala – 7 Benefits and Uses of CBD Oil (Plus Side Effects) – https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cbd-oil-benefits

[14] Kristeen Cherney – Using CBD Oil for Anxiety: Does It Work? – https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-for-anxiety

[15] Gioacchino Calapai, Carmen Mannucci, Ioanna Chinou, Luigi Cardia, Fabrizio Calapai, Emanuela Elisa Sorbara, Bernardo Firenzuoli, Valdo Ricca, Gian Franco Gensini, Fabio Firenzuoli – Preclinical and Clinical Evidence Supporting Use of Cannabidiol in Psychiatry – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6735178/

[16] Jasminka Šikić – CBD in Europe – Legislation on the EU and National Levels – https://ilesol.com/cbd-european-legislation-national/

[17] Ana Topshiova – Guide to Buying CBD in Europe — Updated For 2020 – https://dailycbd.com/en/europe/

[18] CANNABIDIOL (CBD) – https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1439/cannabidiol-cbd –

[19] Brent A. Bauer – What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? – https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700#:~:text=Though%20it’s%20often%20well%2Dtolerated,dosage%20of%20CBD%20in%20products.

[20] The Ultimate Guide to CBD (Facts, Research, Pros & Cons) – https://medium.com/alphagreen/the-ultimate-guide-to-cbd-facts-research-pros-cons-ce3a2238dad0

[21] Matthew Thorpe – Grapefruit Warning: It Can Interact with Common Medications – https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/grapefruit-and-medications

[22] Alan Carter – Beginner’s Guide to CBD – https://www.healthline.com/health/your-cbd-guide#uses

[23] Is CBD legal worldwide? Its legal status in 2020 – https://www.theextract.co.uk/is-cbd-legal-worldwide/